Gluten-Free Vietnamese Food
Vietnamese food, like Thai food and Indian food, is naturally GF-friendly in its traditional form. For folks who follow a gluten-free and casein-free diet, dairy is not common in Vietnamese food, so it may be a better choice for you than Indian food. Beverages and desserts are the most likely parts of the menu to contain dairy. As always, check each restaurant’s familiarity with gluten-free best practices and ask about unlisted ingredients.
Vietnamese food also offers many vegetarian options, but beware of a common meat alternative called mì căng or mì căn (also called seitan). This ingredient IS wheat gluten, so it is very important to steer clear of it. Beware of fried tofu as well if you are sensitive to gluten contamination.
A popular option on Vietnamese menus is sandwich bread called banh mi, which DOES contain gluten. To minimize risk of gluten contamination, I would recommend sticking to curries or stews (with a side of rice)
or pho, which is a hearty soup that traditionally uses rice noodles. As with everything, double-check that the rice noodles are not mixed with wheat (not traditional, but possible).
All marinades, sauces, broths, curries, processed meats, and fried foods have the potential to either contain gluten ingredients or have an elevated risk of gluten contamination. Restaurants that make all sauces, broths, etc. from scratch are less likely to include gluten because it is not a traditional ingredient.
However, Westernized Vietnamese restaurants may be a double-edged sword—there is increased potential for good communication but also increased risk of nontraditional uses of gluten. For instance, soy sauce is not traditionally used in Vietnamese cooking, but a Westernized restaurant may incorporate it to satisfy Western palates that are more used to the flavor.
If you’re new to Vietnamese food, I highly recommend looking for a restaurant that is very comfortable with gluten-free diners. I have just recently started eating Vietnamese food, and I had the opportunity to try it at a restaurant with a GF menu and staff that were very knowledgeable about gluten. Once you get used to common ingredients and the right questions to ask, it may be easier to communicate if there is a language barrier.
Gluten-free Vietnamese food options:*
- Pho: beef broth with rice noodles, vegetables, and your choice of meat (often comes with a plate of garnishes to add additional flavors and/or heat)
- Pho Sate: pho with spicy sauce
- Veggie Pho: made with veggie broth and fried tofu (check on fryer contamination risk)
- Goi: “salad” (check dressings and other ingredients)
- Rice Vermicelli/Bun: cold rice noodle salad (check on dressings and other ingredients)
- Com: “rice” (traditionally GF)
- Bánh Xèo: rice-based crepes
- Bánh Cuốn: steamed filled rice rolls
- Spring/Summer Rolls: rice paper, veggies, meat/seafood/tofu, sweet chili sauce (not fried)
- Curries/Soups/Stews: soy sauce not traditionally used, ask for side of rice (instead of banh mi)
- Ca Ri Ga: chicken curry
- Ca Ri Chay: vegan curry
- Bo Kho: beef stew
- Ga Ragu: chicken stew
- Cháo: rice porridge
- Anything fried: tofu, dumplings, eggrolls, fried rice, etc. (unless the food is not coated in wheat and fried in dedicated gluten-free fryer)
- Banh Mi – gluten ingredient
- Mì Căng or Mì Căn (AKA Seitan) – gluten ingredient
- Stir Fry dishes
- All sauces: common culprits include plum sauce, hoisin sauce, oyster sauce, soy sauce
Other common allergens:
- Nuts (peanuts and cashews): ingredient in many dishes in a variety of forms, not always listed as an ingredient
- Pho is your best bet, but there is a high risk of cross-contact
- Dairy: ingredient in many dishes (especially desserts) and beverages
- MSG (monosodium glutamate): used as a flavor enhancer, check with the specific restaurant
- Eggs: can be found in some dishes (and beverages!) as well as egg noodles
- Seafood: common in many dishes in a variety of forms
- Opt for restaurants with GF items marked and knowledgeable wait staff
- Select restaurants where everything is made from scratch and communication is relatively easy
- Communicate with your server about that restaurant’s preparation style and your tastes (a great way to try some new dishes!)
*Refers to commonly-used ingredients only. Gluten contamination is ALWAYS a risk when dining out. Ask about food preparation and anything not made from scratch. Communicate your concerns with your server and consider using a dining card.